determining the rates of change associated with major climatic events and perturbations to global geochemical cycles in the past;

understanding how evolutionary rates vary through time, in different systems such as terrestrial versus marine and in different groups;

evaluating whether cyclical patterns in deep time were controlled by astronomical cycles;

integrating astronomically controlled cyclostratigraphy with other techniques to improve the temporal resolution of the geologic time scale;

improving the calibration of the magneto-stratigraphic and chemo-stratigraphic records through integration with geochronology and;

exploring new methods of integrating geochronology and bio-stratigraphy.